Lore for New World focuses on the story and setting of the game. New World is an Open World MMO set on the fictional and supernatural island of Aeternum in the 17th century.
New World Lore
The Island of Aeternum
New World is an open-world MMORPG that is set in an alternate-history in the twilight of the Age of Exploration and takes place on the fictional and supernatural island of Aeternum in the 17th century. Aeternum, an eternal island of legend, a place of unimaginable beauty, and yet a growing evil where the forces of death and life are in constant conflict.
Aeternum is said to hold an unimaginable source known as the Azoth which many believe to be the source of eternal life and power, and it has led countless generations of explorers who hope to harness the power but end up falling under a malevolent force called The Corruption.
Now, you have been drawn to the island's shores where you'll have to discover the island's secrets, survive and fight alongside other warriors against The Corrupted and rival companies of humans whose only goal is to conquer and have power. Only the brave and cunning can hope to fight back the spreading darkness.
New World Gallery
Pretty certain that Aeternum is basically the island from Lost
From what I can tell that Island of Aeternum is not on Earth, not even in our solar system as there is no single planet rotating counterclockwise as it does in the game.